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Anatomy Atlases: Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus IV: Organ Systems: Glossary of Terms

Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus IV: Organ Systems

Glossary of Terms

Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD

Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed


Their origin and definition related to the Organ Systems.

The following abbreviations are used: Ar., Arabic; AS., Anglo-Saxon; F., French; G., Greek; H., Hebrew; L., Latin; and ME., Middle English.

A| B| C | D| E| F | G| H | I | J| K | L| M| N | O| P| Q | R | S | T| U| V| W | X | Y | Z

A

Appendix
(L. appendix, to hang open). Something hung from or attached to something else.

B

Bulbourethral
(L. bulbus, a bulb; G. urethra, to make water).

D

Duodenum
(L.duodeni, twelve). So called because it is usually twelve fingerbreaths in length.

E

Epiploic (G. epiploon).
Omentum.
Esophagus
(G. oisophagos, from oisein, to carry, and phagma, food). To bear or carry food.

G

Genital
(L. genitalis, belonging to birth).
Gall
(L. galla, bile).

I

Ileum
(G. twisted). The twisted small intestine.
Intestine
(L. intestinus, internal).

J

Jejunum
(L. jejunus, empty).

L

Liver
(L. Jecur; G. Hepar).
Lung
(L. pulmo; G. pneumon or pleumon; AS. Lunge). Named for their light weight.

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M

Mammary
(L. mammarius) Pertaining to the mammae or breast).

O

Omentum
(L. omentum)The membrane that encloses the bowels.
Ovary
(L. ovarium, egg recepticle). The female gonad.

P

Pancreas
(G. pan, all; and Kreas, all flesh). Described by Herophilus (about 300 BC) and named for its meaty or fleshy character.
Parotid
(G. para, beside, and ous, ear). Situated near the ear.
Penis
(L. penis, tail).
Prostate
(G. pro, before, and histani, to stand). The term means "standing before" and applied to one who was a chief or a leader.

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S

Seminal
(L. seminalis, pertaining to semen or seed).
Spleen
(L. lien; G. splen).
Stomach
(G. stomachos; l. stomachus, a mouth or opening).
Suprarenal
(L, supra, above, ren, kidney).

T

Testis
(L. testis, a testicle). The male gonad. Testis means witness and to testify. The testis are so named because they are evidence (witness) of virility. Under Roman law, no man was admissible as a witness unless his testicles were present.
Thyroid
(G. thyroeides from thyreos, shield, and eidos, form). Resembling a shield.
Tragus
(New Latin from Gr. tragos, goat.[ actually, the hair that resembles a goat's beard]) It is the projection of skin- covered cartilage of the auricle, possessing hairs growing in front of the orifice of the external auditory meatus. Also, any hair growing in the same place. A goatee. In German, Bockshaare.

U

Urinary
(L. urina; G. ouron, urine).
Uterine
(L. uterinus, womb). Pertaining to the uterus.
Uterus
(L., G. hystera, womb) Derived from uter (utris), a leather wineskin or waterbottle made of leather or hide.

V

Vagina
(L. a sheath). The vagina was a sheath for a sword (L. gladius) and gladius was a common term for the penis.
Vermiform
(l. vermiformis from vermis, worm, and forma, shape). Shaped like a worm.
Vesicle
(L. vesicula, little bladder).

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