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Anatomy Atlases: Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 2. Neck, Shoulders, Upper Arm, and Upper Thorax (Lungs)

Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 2. Neck, Shoulders, Upper Arm, and Upper Thorax (Lungs)

Plate 2.5

Ronald A. Bergman, Ph.D., Adel K. Afifi, M.D., Jean J. Jew, M.D., and Paul C. Reimann, B.S.
Peer Review Status: Externally Peer Reviewed


Plate 2.5

Upper Left Quadrant

Lower Left Quadrant

Lower Right Quadrant

Upper Right Quadrant

1. Anterior jugular v.
2. Inferior constrictor m. (last appearance)
3. Sternothyroid m.
4. Thyroid gland
5. Common carotid a.
6. Vagus nerve, CN 10
7. Sternocleidomastoid m.
8. Internal jugular v.
9. Anterior scalene m.
10. Dorsal root ganglion, T1
11. External jugular v.
12. Brachial plexus of nerves
13. Clavicle
14. Middle scalene m.
15. Subclavius m.
16. Rib 1
17. Coracoid process
18. Long thoracic nerve and lateral thoracic a.
19. Humerus, lesser tubercle
20. Tendon m. subscapularis
21. Subscapular nerve
22. Humeral head
23. Deltoid m.

24. Glenoid process, scapula and rib 2
25. Suprascapular a., v., and nerve
26. Serratus anterior m.
27. Subscapularis m.
28. Serratus posterior superior m.
29. Infraspinatus m.
30. Rhomboideus major m.
31. Rhomboideus minor m.
32. Multifidus m.
33. Trapezius m.
34. Spinal cord, dorsal (sensory) root

35. Supraspinous ligament
36. Vertebra, T2 spinous process
37. Trapezius m.
38. Rhomboideus major m.
39. Rhomboideus minor m.
40. Scapula, medial border
41. Multifidus m.
42. Dorsal scapular nerve and transverse cervical a. and v.
43. Infraspinatus m.
44. Vertebral arch, T2
45. Subscapularis m.
46. Scapula
47. Serratus anterior m.
48. Suprascapular a., v., and nerve
49. Intercostal mm. and subscapular a., v., and nerve
50. Tendon m. subscapularis
51. Glenoid process, scapula
52. Rib 2

53. Humeral head
54. Deltoid m.
55. Subscapular a., lateral thoracic br. to serratus anterior m. (var. 30%)
56. Transverse humeral ligament
57. Tendon m. biceps brachii, long head
58. Humerus, lesser tubercle
59. Intercostal mm.
60. Coracoid process
61. Deltoid m.
62. Long thoracic nerve and rib 1
63. Subclavius m.
64. Middle scalene m.
65. Intercostal mm.
66. Dorsal root ganglion, T2
67. Brachial plexus of nerves
68. External jugular v.
69. Spinal cord
70. Rib 1, costovertebral articulation
71. Anterior scalene m.
72. Vertebra, T1, body
73. Sternocleidomastoid m.
74. Internal jugular v.
75. Longus colli m.
76. Common carotid a.
77. Sternohyoid m.
78. Thyroid gland and inferior thyroid a.
79. Intervertebral disk, T1, fibrocartilage
80. Cricoid cartilage
81. Pharynx, laryngeal
82. Rima glottidis

This section passes through the rima glottidis (82), cricoid cartilage (80), pharynx (81), first thoracic vertebra (72), elements of the brachial plexus (12, 67), and ribs 1 (16, 62) and 2 (24, 52).

The brachial plexus of nerves usually passes into the posterior triangle of the neck between the anterior (71) and middle (64) scalene muscles.

The inferior constrictor (2) is seen for the last time. The pharynx ends in this section; this occurs topographically at the level of the cricoid cartilage (80).

The subscapular artery, lateral thoracic branch, is seen supplying serratus anterior (55).

This variation occurs in about 30°o of individuals. The lateral thoracic artery has also been reported to arise from the second part of the axillary in 50%, from the first part of the axillary in 11%, and from the thoracoacromial artery in 7%.

The thyroid gland (4, 78) is seen bilaterally in this section. Muscles acting on the scapula in this section include serratus anterior (26, 47), rhomboideus minor (31, 39), rhomboideus major (30, 38), trapezius (33, 37), and deltoid (23, 54).

Muscles arising from the scapula in this section include subscapularis (27, 45) and infraspinatus (29, 43).

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