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Anatomy Atlases: Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 6. Pelvis, Perineum, Hip, and Upper Thigh: Male

Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 6. Pelvis, Perineum, Hip, and Upper Thigh: Male

Plate 6.1 Pelvis, Perineum, Hip, and Upper Thigh: Male

Ronald A. Bergman, Ph.D., Adel K. Afifi, M.D., Jean J. Jew, M.D., and Paul C. Reimann, B.S.
Peer Review Status: Externally Peer Reviewed

Plate 6.1

Upper Left Quadrant

Lower Left Quadrant

Lower Right Quadrant

Upper Right Quadrant

1. Transverse colon
2. Inferior epigastric a. and v.
3. Common iliac aa.
4. Ileum
5. Ascending colon
6. Transversalis fascia
7. Ureter

8. Genitofemoral nerve
9. Genital br. of genitofemoral nerve
10. Iliohypogastric nerve
11. Ilioinguinal nerve
12. Os ilium
13. Inferior vena cava (last appearance)
14. Gluteus medius m. and gluteal fascia
15. Iliacus m. in iliac fossa (first appearance)
16. Posterior abdominal wall fat and psoas major m.
17. Iliolumbar ligament (an origin of iliacus)
18. Transverse process, L5
19. Thoracolumbar fascia
20. Superior articular process, L5
21. Articular cavity
22. Inferior articular process, L4
23. Vertebra, L5
24. Spinous process, L5

25. Nerve roots and filum terminale; thecal sac
26. First sacral nerve
27. Multifidus and erector spinae mm.
28. Nucleus pulposus and fibrous ring of L4/L5 disk
29. Lumbar plexus: L2, L3, and L4
30. Os ilium
31. Gluteus medius (first appearance)
32. Thoracolumbar fascia
33. Psoas major m.
34. Left common iliac joining inferior vena cava
35. Posterior abdominal wall fat
36. Descending colon
37. Sympathetic trunk
38. Parietal peritoneum
39. Ureter

40. Iliohypogastric nerve
41. Transversus abdominis m.
42. Internal abdominal oblique m.
43. External abdominal oblique m.
44. Jejunum
45. Mesentery
46. Jejunal aa. and w.
47. Abdominal aortic plexus of nerves
48. Inferior epigastric a.
49. Rectus abdominis m. and sheath
50. Linea alba

This section passes through the upper part of the fifth lumbar vertebra (23) and the lower part of the L4/L5 intervertebral disk (28).

At this level the bifurcation of the aorta has taken place, giving rise to the common iliac arteries (3). The inferior vena cave (13) is seen for the last time.

Gluteus medius (14, 31) and iliacus (15) muscles are seen for the first time.

The intestinal coils of the small intestine are cut many times: on the left side the jejunum (44) and on the right side the ileum (4). The retroperitoneal descending colon lying on the posterior abdominal wall is cut transversely (36). The ascending colon (5) is also seen. Although there is disagreement about where the sigmoid colon begins, Anson places it at the level of the superior aperture of the lesser or true pelvis (see Plate 6.5). Other authors (e.g., Poirier and Charpy, Spalteholtz, and Eycleshymer and Schoemaker) consider the beginning of the sigmoid to be below the place where the colon is in front of the iliac vessels and the left vas deferens. Still others consider the point of demarcation to be the crest of the ilium.

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