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Anatomy Atlases: Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 7. Lower Limb

Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 7. Lower Limb

Plate 7.14

Ronald A. Bergman, Ph.D., Adel K. Afifi, M.D., Jean J. Jew, M.D., and Paul C. Reimann, B.S.
Peer Review Status: Externally Peer Reviewed


Plate 7.1

Upper Left Quadrant

Lower Left Quadrant

Lower Right Quadrant

Upper Right Quadrant

1. Anterior cruciate ligament
2. Lateral meniscus

3. Lateral femoral condyle, articular cartilage
4. Fibular collateral ligament
5. Common peroneal nerve
6. Plantaris m.
7. Nerve to gastrocnemius and gastrocnemius m. (lateral head)
8. Small saphenous v.
9. Medial sural cutaneous nerve
10. Nerve to soleus m. and tibial nerve

11. Popliteal v. and a.
12. Posterior meniscofemoral ligament and intercondylar tibial eminence
13. Gastrocnemius m. (medial head)
14. Plantaris m. and posterior cruciate ligament
15. Tendon m. sartorius
16. Tendon m. semitendinosus
17. Tendons mm. gracilis and semimembranosus
18. Great saphenous v.
19. Sartorius m.
20. Medial meniscus
21. Medial tibial articular surface

22. Tibial collateral ligament
23. Tibia
24. Medial patellar ligament
25. Patellar ligament

This section is the superior face of the next section (Plate 7.15); you are looking downward (distally) rather than upward.

The section passes through the knee joint patellar ligament (2 5), tibial (22) and fibular (4) collateral ligaments, the medial (20) and lateral (2) menisci, the anterior (1) and posterior (14) cruciate ligaments, and the distal edges of the medial (21) and lateral (3) femoral condyles.

It cuts the tibial nerve (10), medial sural cutaneous nerve (9), nerve to the soleus (10), nerve to gastrocnemius (lateral head) (7), and the common peroneal nerve (5).

Plantaris muscle (14) makes its first appearance in this section.

The tibial collateral ligament (22) is a strong, flat band that extends from the tubercle on the medial epicondyle of the femur to the medial margin and medial surface of the shaft of the tibia, about 3.5 cm distal to the condyle. The fibular collateral ligament (4) is a strong round cord, about 5 cm in length, attached proximally to a tubercle on the lateral epicondyle of the femur and fixed distally to the middle of the lateral surface of the head of the fibula about 1.5 cm from the apex.

The menisci (2, 20) are two intraarticular crescentic disks of fibrocartilage resting on circular portions of the articular surface of the tibia. They move with the tibia upon the femur. They deepen the shallow tibial articular surfaces. They are dense and compact in structure, becoming looser and more fibrous near their extremities, where they are fixed firmly both anteriorly and posteriorly to the intercondylar eminence of the tibia. The circumferential border of each disk is convex, thick, and rather loosely attached to the margins of the condyles of the tibia by the fibrous membrane of the capsule. The inner margins are concave, thin, and free. They are about 1.3 to 1.5 cm broad at their widest part; they taper toward their extremities and cover less than two-thirds of the articular surface of the tibia. Their proximal surfaces are slightly concave; the distal surfaces are flat and rest upon the tibia.

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