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Anatomy Atlases: Atlas of Human Anatomy: Plate 31

Atlas of Human Anatomy

Plate 31: Visual and hearing apparatus.

Translated by: Ronald A. Bergman, PhD and Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed


  1. The anterior surface of the (left) outer ear cartilage and outer ear muscles.
  2. Posterior surface of the (left) outer temporal bone with the external muscles.
  3. The interior (tympanic cavity, cochlea, vestibule) of the left ear, open from above.
  4. The left tympanic cavity, (after removal of the inner wall of the tympanic membrane), with auditory ossicles.
  5. The parts of the right auditory organ connected.
  6. Hammer, Incus (ambos), and Stapes.
  7. Incus (of left ear).
  8. Hammer (malleus), of left ear.
  9. Stapes, of left ear.
  10. Bones of the labyrinth (of left ear) outer surface, unopened.
  11. The bony labyrinth, of the left ear, opened.
  12. The bones and membraneous labyrinth (of the left ear) with its nerves.
  13. Opened membranous labyrinth (of the left ear).
  14. Bony cochlea (of left ear), opened from the side.
  15. The bony cochlea (of left ear), vertical middle section.
  16. The left eye of the dissected face, with its muscles and nerves.
  17. The outer and inner muscles of the (right) eye, and exposure of the internal stratum of musculus orbicularis.
  18. The tear and eyelid glands of the left eye.
  19. Both orbital cavities, opened from above, with their muscles and nerves.
  20. The right ocular bulb in the orbit, cut through the middle, opened from the lateral side.
Plate 31: Visual and hearing apparatus.
Title Page The anterior surface of the (left) outer ear cartilage and outer ear muscles Posterior surface of the (left) outer temporal bone with the external muscles. The interior (tympanic cavity, cochlea, vestibule) of the left ear, open from above The left tympanic cavity, (after removal of the inner wall of the tympanic membrane), with auditory ossicles The parts of the right auditory organ connected Hammer, Incus (ambos), and Stapes Incus (of left ear) Hammer (malleus), of left ear Stapes, of left ear Bones of the labyrinth (of left ear) outer surface, unopened The bony labyrinth, of the left ear, opened The bones and membraneous labyrinth (of the left ear) with its nerves Opened membranous labyrinth (of the left ear) Bony cochlea (of left ear), opened from the side The bony cochlea (of left ear), vertical middle section The left eye of the dissected face, with its muscles and nerves The outer and inner muscles of the (right) eye, and exposure of the internal stratum of musculus orbicularis The tear and eyelid glands of the left eye Both orbital cavities, opened from above, with their muscles and nerves The right ocular bulb in the orbit, cut through the middle, opened from the lateral side
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