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Anatomy Atlases: Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 1. Head and Neck

Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 1. Head and Neck

Plate 1.20

Ronald A. Bergman, Ph.D., Adel K. Afifi, M.D., Jean J. Jew, M.D., and Paul C. Reimann, B.S.
Peer Review Status: Externally Peer Reviewed


Plate 1.20

Upper Left Quadrant

Lower Left Quadrant

Lower Right Quadrant

Upper Right Quadrant

1. Nasal septum
2. Inferior concha
3. Nasolacrimal duct
4. Agger cells
5. Maxillary sinus
6. Pterygoid plexus of vv.
7. Infraorbital nerve, maxillary division trigeminal (CN 5) nerve
8. Medial pterygoid m. and auditory tube
9. Temporalis m.
10. Longus capitis m.
11. Deep temporal a.
12. Masseter m.
13. Lateral pterygoid m.
14. Levator veli palatini m.
15. Middle meningeal a.
16. Mandible, condylar neck
17. Rectus capitis anterior m.
18. Superficial temporal a.
19. Internal carotid a.
20. Sympathetic trunk

21. Spinal accessory (CN 11) nerve
22. Parotid gland
23. Glossopharyngeal (CN 9) and vagus (CN 10) nerves
24. Styloid process
25. Internal jugular v.
26. Mastoid process, temporal bone
27. Facial (CN 7) nerve
28. Digastric m., posterior belly
29. Basioccipital bone
30. Splenius capitis m.
31. Vertebral a.
32. Cerebellum, hemisphere
33. Rectus capitis posterior major m.
34. Rectus capitis posterior minor m.
35. Semispinalis capitis m.
36. Trapezius m.

37. Occipital bone
38. Restiform body (inferior cerebellar peduncle)
39. Medullary pyramid
40. Vertebral a.
41. Cerebellum, hemisphere
42. Splenius capitis m.
43. Sternocleidomastoid m.
44. Sigmoid sinus
45. Cranial nerves 9, 10, 11 in jugular foramen
46. Mastoid air cells
47. Jugular foramen and internal jugular v.
48. External auditory meatus
49. Facial nerve

50. External auditory meatus
51. Internal carotid a.
52. Temporomandibular joint capsule
53. Auditory (eustachian) tube
54. Longus capitis m.
55. Orbit, inferior edge
56. Ethmoidal bulla
57. Agger cells
58. Nasolacrimal duct
59. Inferior concha

This section passes through the inferior edge of the left orbit (55), nasolacrimal ducts (3, 58), agger cells (4, 57), ethmoidal bulla (56), maxillary sinus (5), inferior concha (2), basioccipital bone (29), and the posterior cranial fossa, which contains the cerebellar hemispheres (32, 41).

The following nerves can be identified: facial (CN 7) (27, 49), glossopharyngeal (CN 9), vagus (CN 10), spinal accessory (CN 11) (21, 23, 45), sympathetic trunk (20), and the infraorbital (7) nerve of the maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve (CN 5). This section cuts the medullary pyramids (39) and the cerebellar hemispheres (32, 41).

The muscles of mastication include the lateral pterygoid (13), masseter (12), temporalis (9), and the edge of the medial pterygoid (8). These four muscles are innervated by the trigeminal nerve (CN 5), mandibular division.

Vascular elements identified are internal carotid artery (19, 51), sigmoid sinus (44), vertebral arteries (31,40), internal jugular vein (25), superficial temporal artery (18), middle meningeal artery (15), deep temporal artery (11), and pterygoid plexus of veins (6).

The levator veli palatini muscle (14), which elevates the soft palate, is innervated by a pharyngeal branch of the vagus nerve. The tensor veli palatini (not seen in this section) is innervated by the motor part of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (CN 5), which passes through the otic ganglion. This muscle is different from the other muscles of the palate, and this difference is explained by its development from the mandibular arch.

Muscles of the head and neck include the sternocleidomastoid (43) and trapezius (36), which are innervated by the spinal accessory nerve (CN 11); splenius capitis (30, 42) and semispinalis capitis (35), which are innervated by the lateral division of the posterior primary rami of upper cervical nerves; rectus capitis anterior (17), which is innervated by the ventral division of the first or first and second cervical nerves; and longus capitis (10), which is innervated by direct branches from the anterior division of cervical nerves. The suboccipital muscles seen here include rectus capitis posterior major (33) and minor (34). All four suboccipital muscles (two are not seen in this section) are innervated by the posterior primary ramus of the suboccipital (first cervical) nerve.

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