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Anatomy Atlases: Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 1. Head and Neck

Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 1. Head and Neck

Plate 1.21

Ronald A. Bergman, Ph.D., Adel K. Afifi, M.D., Jean J. Jew, M.D., and Paul C. Reimann, B.S.
Peer Review Status: Externally Peer Reviewed


Plate 1.21

Upper Left Quadrant

Lower Left Quadrant

Lower Right Quadrant

Upper Right Quadrant

1. Nasopharynx
2. Maxillary sinus
3. Pterygopalatine ganglion
4. Orbit and inferior oblique m.
5. Infraorbital a.
6. Lateral pterygoid m. and optic nerve
7. Zygomatic bone
8. Foramen ovale and mandibular division of trigeminal nerve (CN 5)
9. Deep temporal a. and brs.
10. Masseter m.
11. Auditory (eustachian) tube
12. Middle meningeal a. in foramen spinosum
13. Temporal bone, zygomatic process
14. Superficial temporal v. and temporal bone, zygomatic process
15. Superficial temporal a. and mandibular head
16. Internal carotid a.

17. External auditory meatus
18. Facial nerve (CN 7)
19. Jugular foramen, internal jugular v.
20. Mastoid air cells
21. Sigmoid sinus
22. Subarachnoid space
23. Spinal accessory nerve (CN 11)
24. Vagus nerve (CN 10)
25. Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN 9)
26. Superior vagal ganglion
27. Cerebellum
28. Vertebral a.
29. Subarachnoid space
30. Cerebellum

31. Medullary restiform body (inferior cerebellar peduncle)
32. Occipital bone
33. Cerebellum
34. Cerebellum
35. Medullary pyramid
36. Cerebellum, hemisphere
37. Vertebral a.
38. Basioccipital bone
39. Temporal bone, mastoid process
40. Pinna, elastic cartilage
41. Internal jugular v.
42. Rectus capitis anterior m.
43. Styloid process and internal carotid a.
44. Parotid gland
45. Middle meningeal a.

46. Superficial temporal a. and v.
47. Mandible, neck
48. Middle meningeal a.
49. Levator veli palatini m.
50. Mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (CN 5)
51. Lateral pterygoid m.
52. Masseter m.
53. Longus capitis m.
54. Deep temporal a., tensor veli palatini m., and auditory (eustachian) tube
55. Mandible, coronoid process, and temporalis m.
56. Pterygoid plexus of w.
57. Infraorbital nerve, mandibular division of trigeminal nerve (CN 5)
58. Maxillary a., terminal brs.
59. Greater and lesser palatine nerves
60. Maxillary sinus
61. Infraorbital nerve
62. Levator labii superioris m.
63. Nasolacrimal duct
64. Middle concha
65. Nasalis m.
66. Nasal cavity
67. Nasal septum
68. Nasolacrimal duct

This section is similar to the one preceding, being its opposite face (looking down). This section passes through the nasal cavity (66), nasolacrimal ducts (63, 68), maxillary sinuses (2, 60), basioccipital bone (38), and the inferior part of the posterior cranial fossa, in which the cerebellar hemispheres (27, 36) can be seen. The section cuts the medulla oblongata (31, 35). Of particular interest is that cranial nerves 9 (glossopharyngeal) (25), 10 (vagus) (24), and 11 (spinal accessory) (23) are cut as they leave the cranial cavity via the jugular foramen and pass anterior to the jugular vein (19) medial to the internal carotid artery (16). Distally, they will lie between the carotid and the internal jugular vein. The superior vagal ganglion (26) is in the jugular foremen at the junction of the sigmoid sinus (21) and internal jugular vein (19).

The pterygopalatine ganglion (3) and the infraorbital artery (5) are identified.

The mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve is seen in the foremen ovale (8). The middle meningeal artery is seen in the foremen spinosum (12).

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