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Anatomy Atlases: Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 1. Head and Neck

Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 1. Head and Neck

Plate 1.26

Ronald A. Bergman, Ph.D., Adel K. Afifi, M.D., Jean J. Jew, M.D., and Paul C. Reimann, B.S.
Peer Review Status: Externally Peer Reviewed


Plate 1.26

Upper Left Quadrant

Lower Left Quadrant

Lower Right Quadrant

Upper Right Quadrant

1. Incisive canal, posterior nasal septal a., and nasopalatine nerve
2. Naris, vestibule of nose
3. Hard palate 4. Maxilla
5. Vestibule, mouth
6. Facial v.
7. Orbicularis oris m.
8. Sublingual gland
9. Mandibular canal and uvula
10. Superior pharyngeal constrictor m. and oral pharynx
11. Mandible

12. Palatine tonsil
13. Stylohyoid m.
14. Styloid process
15. External jugular v.
16. Hypoglossal nerve (CN 12)
17. Superior pharyngeal constrictor m.
18. External carotid a.
19. Internal carotid a.
20. Sternocleidomastoid m.
21. Internal jugular v.
22. Vertebra, second cervical transverse process
23. Vertebral a.
24. Semispinalis capitis m.
25. Vertebra, second cervical body
26. Longissimus capitis m.
27. Vertebra, second cervical pedicle
28. Splenius capitis m.
29. Semispinalis capitis m.
30. Subarachnoid space
31. Scalp
32. Spinal cord, ventral gray column
33. Spinal cord, dorsal (posterior) columns
34. Trapezius m.
35. Second cervical vertebra, bifid spinous process

36. Tendon m. semispinalis cervicis and vertebra, second cervical inferior articular process
37. Dorsal root ganglion, second cervical nerve
38. Inferior oblique capitis m.
39. Vertebra, third cervical articular process
40. Deep cervical v.
41. Semispinalis capitis m.
42. Vertebral a.
43. Splenius capitis m.
44. Anterior intertransversarium m.
45. First cervical vertebra, atlas transverse process
46. Posterior belly of digastric m. and facial nerve (CN 7)
47. Superior cervical sympathetic ganglion
48. Sternocleidomastoid m.
49. Glossopharyngeal (CN 9), vagus (CN 10), and spinal accessory (CN 11) nerves
50. Palatopharyngeus m.
51. External carotid a.
52. External jugular v.
53. Palatine tonsil
54. Parotid gland

55. Mandibular canal, inferior alveolar a. and nerve, and masseter m.
56. Lingual nerve and mandibular ramus
57. Lateral pterygoid m.
58. Zygomaticus major m.
59. Buccinator m.
60. Maxillary sinus
61. Nasal cartilage

This section passes through the nares (2), maxillary bone (4) and its incisive canal (1), pharynx (10), mandible (11, 56) and its mandibular canal (9, 55), and the second cervical vertebra (25, 27, 35, 36).

The superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle (10, 17) is thin and pale. Its fibers pass dorsally from an extensive anterior attachment to insert on the pharyngeal raphe, the pharyngeal tubercle of the occipital bone. The more inferior fibers arch distally deep to the middle constrictor muscle. The muscle has four sites of origin: from the dorsal margin of the medial pterygoid lamina and its hamular process, from the pterygomandibular raphe, from the posterior one fifth of the mylohyoid line of the mandible, and from the side of the root of the tongue deep to the hyoglossus muscle. It is innervated by the vagus nerve (CN 10) and it constricts the pharynx.

Note the bifid spinous process of the second cervical vertebra (35). The spinous processes of cervical vertebrae 2, 3, 4, and 5 usually possess bifid spines. The sixth and seventh show a tendency to bifurcate and usually present two small lateral tubercles. Occasionally all the cervical spines except the second are nonbifid. The only cervical vertebra that possesses a bifid spine in all races of man is the second.

Semispinalis cervicis arises from the transverse processes of the upper thoracic vertebrae and insert on the spinous processes of the second (36) through the fifth cervical vertebrae.

The suboccipital inferior oblique muscle (38) arises from the spine of the second cervical vertebra (axis) (35) and inserts onto the tip of the transverse process of the first cervical vertebra (atlas) (45). All four suboccipital muscles are innervated by the posterior primary ramus of the suboccipital (first cervical) nerve.

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