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Anatomy Atlases: Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 3. Middle Thorax (Heart and Lungs)

Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 3. Middle Thorax (Heart and Lungs)

Plate 3.1

Ronald A. Bergman, Ph.D., Adel K. Afifi, M.D., Jean J. Jew, M.D., and Paul C. Reimann, B.S.
Peer Review Status: Externally Peer Reviewed


Plate 3.1

Upper Left Quadrant

Lower Left Quadrant

Lower Right Quadrant

Upper Right Quadrant

1. Pericardial cavity and transverse pericardial sinus
2. Lung, right upper lobe, anterior segment, and right pericardiacophrenic a. and phrenic nerve
3. Superior vena cava
4. Right pulmonary a.
5. Lung, right upper lobe, posterior segment
6. Pleural cavity
7. Lateral thoracic a., br.
8. Lung, right oblique fissure

9. Serratus anterior m.
10. Right mainstem bronchus
11. Middle mediastinal lymph node
12. Thoracodorsal a. and v. and nerve
13. Long thoracic nerve and lateral thoracic a.
14. Vagus nerve, right
15. Subscapularis m.
16. Teres major m.
17. Infraspinatus m.
18. Lung, right lower lobe, superior segment
19. Esophagus
20. Trapezius m.
21. Longissimus thoracis m.
22. Thoracic duct and azygos v.

23. Spinal cord and disk, T6, and vertebral body, T6
24. Interspinous ligament
25. Semispinalis thoracis and multifidus mm.
26. Costotransverse and costovertebral joints, rib 7
27. Descending (thoracic) aorta
28. Lung, left lower lobe, apical posterior segment
29. Esophageal plexus
30. Rhomboideus major m.
31. Scapula, insertion of serratus anterior m.
32. Infraspinatus m. and left recurrent laryngeal nerve
33. Subscapularis m.
34. Lung, left lower lobe, superior segment, and vagus nerve
35. Teres major m.
36. Latissimus dorsi m.
37. Serratus anterior m. and rib 6
38. Lung, left interlobar (horizontal) fissure, and left mainstem bronchus
39. Left pulmonary aa.

40. Rib 5
41. Secondary bronchus (left upper lobar)
42. Tertiary bronchi (apical segmental and posterior segmental)
43. Lung, left upper lobe, upper division, apical posterior segment
44. Rib 4
45. Pectoralis major m.
46. Pectoralis minor m.
47. Pericardiacophrenic a. and phrenic nerve
48. Lung, left upper lobe, upper division, anterior segment, and rib 3
49. Pulmonary a.
50. Internal thoracic vessels
51. Anterior mediastinal fat
52. Aorta
53. Sternum, body

This section passes through the sixth thoracic vertebra and a portion of the sixth intervertebral disk (23). It cuts the superior and transverse costal joints (26), ribs 7 (26) 6 (37), 5 (40), 4 (44), and 3 (48), and the sternum (53).

On the left side, the pulmonary artery (49) and its branches (39), the descending aorta (27), internal thoracic artery and veins (50), and the pericardiacophrenic artery (47) are seen. The phrenic nerve (47), left vagus nerve (34), left recurrent laryngeal nerve (32) esophageal plexus of autonomic nerves (29), and the spinal cord are important nervous tissue elements in this section. The left mainstem bronchus (38) and the secondary (41) and tertiary apical and posterior segmental (42) bronchi are identified. The lung left upper lobe, upper division, anterior (48) and apical posterior (43) and the left lower lobe, superior (28, 34) bronchopulmonary segments are shown. On the anterior thoracic wall, pectoralis major (45) and minor (46) muscles can be identified; on the lateral wall, serratus anterior (37) and latissimus dorsi (36) muscles are indicated; and on the posterior wall, teres major

(35), subscapularis (33), rhomboideus major (30), semispinalis thoracis (25), and multifidus (25) muscles are also labeled.

In the middle, the ascending aorta (52), right pulmonary artery (4), the descending aorta (27), the thoracic duct and azygos vein (22), and the esophagus (19) are found.

On the right side, the pulmonary artery (4), superior vena cave (3), lateral thoracic artery (7, 13), and the pericardiacophrenic artery (2) are seen. The right vagus (14), long thoracic (13), thoracodorsal (12), and the right phrenic (2) nerves are accounted for. The right lung upper lobe, superior bronchopulmonary segment (18); oblique interlobar fissure (8), and right upper lobe, posterior (5) and anterior (2) bronchopulmonary segments are identified. The trapezius (20), longissimus dorsi (21), infraspinatus (17), teres major (16), subscapularis (15), and serratus anterior (9) are also identified.

A mediastinal Iymph node is identified. The pericardial cavity and the transverse pericardial sinus (1) are seen.

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