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Anatomy Atlases: Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 3. Middle Thorax (Heart and Lungs)

Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 3. Middle Thorax (Heart and Lungs)

Plate 3.2

Ronald A. Bergman, Ph.D., Adel K. Afifi, M.D., Jean J. Jew, M.D., and Paul C. Reimann, B.S.
Peer Review Status: Externally Peer Reviewed


Plate 3.2

Upper Left Quadrant

Lower Left Quadrant

Lower Right Quadrant

Upper Right Quadrant

1. Ascending aorta
2. Sternocostal joint
3. Pericardial cavity
4. Transverse pericardial sinus
5. Pleural cavity
6. Superior vena cava
7. Lung, right upper lobe, anterior segment
8. Pectoralis major m.
9. Pectoralis minor m.
10. Lung, right upper lobe, posterior segment, and right pulmonary v.
11. Right pulmonary a.
12. Oblique interlobar fissure, right lung
13. Mediastinal Iymph nodes
14. Right bronchus

15. Rib 5
16. Intercostal neurovascular bundle
17. Serratus anterior m.
18. Mediastinal Iymph nodes
19. Thoracodorsal vessels
20. Rib 6
21. Latissimus dorsi m.
22. Teres major m.
23. Subscapularis m. (last appearance)
24. Infraspinatus m. (last appearance)
25. Serratus anterior m.
26. Lung, right lower lobe, superior segment, and scapula
27. Rhomboideus major m.
28. Esophagus
29. Rib 7
30. Azygos v.
31. Costotransverse ligament
32. Rib 7 costovertebral articulation, and radiate ligament
33. Dorsal lamina of vertebral arch
34. Thoracic duct
35. Multifidus m. and ligamentum flavum

36. Thoracic spine, T6
37. Spinal cord
38. Thoracic vertebral body, T7
39. Anterior longitudinal ligament and thoracic aorta (descending)
40. Trapezius m.
41. Longissimus thoracis m.
42. External intercostal m.
43. Intercostal v.
44. Thoracolumber fascia, posterior layer
45. Scapula
46. Lung, left lower lobe, superior segment
47. Left pulmonary a.
48. Lung, left interlobar (oblique) fissure, and left bronchus

49. Intercostal a.
50. Left pulmonary a.
51. Lung, left upper lobe, upper division, apical posterior segment
52. Rib 4
53. Left atrial appendage
54. Pericardiacophrenic a. and phrenic nerve
55. Lung, left upper lobe, upper division, anterior segment and pericardial fat
56. Left coronary a.
57. Pulmonary trunk (a.), atrioventricular valve segments
58. Right ventricular myocardium
59. Rib 3
60. Internal thoracic a. and v.
61. Anterior mediastinal fat
62. Sternum, body

This section passes through the seventh thoracic vertebra (38) at the superior edge of the superior and transverse costal pits; elements of the costar articulation (31, 32) are seen. The section cuts ribs 7 (29, 32), 6 (20), 5 (15), 4 (52), and 3 (59).

On the left side, the right ventricular myocardium (58), pulmonary trunk and semilunar (atrioventricular) valve segments (57), left coronary artery (56), pericardiacophrenic artery and phrenic nerve (54), left atrial appendage (53), and left pulmonary artery (50) are seen. An intercostal artery (49) and vein (43) are identified. The external intercostal (42), longissimus (41), and trapezius (40) muscles are also identified. 'The left bronchus (48), left upper (51, 55) and lower (46) lobes, and bronchopulmonary segments are identified. The sternum (62), scapula (45), thoracolumbar fascia, posterior layer (44), and the anterior longitudinal ligament (39) are seen.

In the middle mediastinum, the ascending aorta (1), superior vena cave (6), esophagus (28), descending thoracic aorta (39), the thoracic duct (34), and the azygos vein (30) are found. The transverse pericardial sinus (4) and the pericardial (3) and pleural cavities are seen. Mediastinal Iymph nodes are seen (13).

On the right side, the superior vena cave (6) and pulmonary artery (11) and vein (10) are identified. The oblique fissure (12) of the right lung separates the upper (7, 10) and middle lobes from the lower lobe (26). The following right lung bronchopulmonary segments may be identified: the right upper lobe anterior (7) and posterior (10) and the right lower lobe superior (26).

The radiate ligament of the costovertebral articulation (32), the costotransverse ligament of the costotransverse articulation (31), anterior longitudinal ligament (39), and ligamentum flavum (35) are all important connective tissue structures associated with the vertebral column or ribs.

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