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Anatomy Atlases: Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 5. Lower Thorax (Lungs) and Abdomen

Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 5. Lower Thorax (Lungs) and Abdomen

Plate 5.1

Ronald A. Bergman, Ph.D., Adel K. Afifi, M.D., Jean J. Jew, M.D., and Paul C. Reimann, B.S.
Peer Review Status: Externally Peer Reviewed

Plate 5.1

Upper Left Quadrant

Lower Left Quadrant

Lower Right Quadrant

Upper Right Quadrant

1. Falciform ligament of liver
2. Rectus abdominis m.
3. Diaphragm
4. Lung, right middle lobe medial segment
5. Hepatic duct
6. Peritoneal cavity
7. Pleural cavity
8. Intercostal mm.
9. Liver, caudate lobe (spigelian)
10. Liver, right lobe
11. Oblique fissure, right lung
12. Diaphragm
13. Pulmonary vein

14. Lung, right anterior basal segment
15. Inferior vena cava
16. Rib 8
17. Serratus anterior m.
18. Lung, right lateral basal segment
19. Latissimus dorsi m.
20. Rib 9
21. Diaphragm
22. Lung, right posterior basal segment
23. Intercostal v., T10
24. Longissimus m.
25. Thoracic duct
26. Hemiazygos v. joining azygos v.
27. Transverse process, T10
28. Thoracic vertebra, T10

29. Spinous process, T9
30. Multifidus m.
31. Dorsal root ganglion in intervertebral foramen
32. Aorta
33. Pleural cavity
34. Rib 10
35. Right vagus nerve, esophageal plexus and esophageal diaphragmatic hiatus
36. Lung, left lower lobe lateral basal segment
37. Rib 9
38. Diaphragm
39. Spleen
40. Inferior phrenic a.
41. Stomach

42. Rib 8
43. Esophagus
44. Liver, appendix fibrosus hepatis (var.), beaver tail
45. Left vagus nerve, esophageal plexus
46. Lung, left anterior basal segment
47. Rib 7
48. Diaphragm
49. Oblique fissure, left lung
50. Lung, left lingula
51. Liver, left lobe
52. Rib 6
53. Parietal and visceral pericardium
54. Heart, apex
55. Rib 6
56. Rib 7
57. Rectus abdominis m.
58. Xiphoid process

This section will arbitrarily be considered, for the purposes of this book, as the first plate in the section on the abdomen. It obviously passes through both the abdomen and the thorax but is, in the main, near the level of the dome of the diaphragm (esophageal hiatus, 35) and is as close to that point as a straight line section could ever be to separate the thorax and abdomen.

This section passes through the tenth thoracic vertebra (28) and its transverse processes (27). The tip of the spinous process (29) belongs to the ninth thoracic vertebra (29). The section passes close to the (intervertebral) foraminal notch of the tenth vertebra (28). The section cuts ribs 10 (34), 9 (20, 37), 8 (16, 42), 7 (47, 56) and 6 (52, 55).

On the left side, the section passes through the parietal and visceral pericardium (53), exposing the apex of the heart (54). It passes through a persistent fetal remnant of the left lobe of the liver (51), the so called "beaver tail" (44), which passes over the stomach (41) to terminate at the superior end of the spleen (39). The section cuts the left lung lingula (50), passes through the oblique fissure of the left lung (49), the left anterior basal segment (46), and the left lateral basal segment (36). It cuts the diaphragm (38, 48) and its inferior phrenic artery (40). The cut passes through the esophagus (43) at its junction with the stomach (41) at the esophageal diaphragmatic hiatus (35).

On the right side, the section passes through the right lobe of the liver (10), the caudate lobe (9), and the falciform ligament (1). It cuts the right lung, middle lobe medial segment (4), oblique fissure (11), right lateral basal segment (18), posterior basal segment (22), and anterior basal segment (14). The hemiazygos vein can be seen joining the azygos vein (26).

The right (35) and left (45) vagus nerves can be seen at the esophageal diaphragmatic hiatus.

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