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Anatomy Atlases: Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 5. Lower Thorax (Lungs) and Abdomen

Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 5. Lower Thorax (Lungs) and Abdomen

Plate 5.3

Ronald A. Bergman, Ph.D., Adel K. Afifi, M.D., Jean J. Jew, M.D., and Paul C. Reimann, B.S.
Peer Review Status: Externally Peer Reviewed

Plate 5.3

Upper Left Quadrant

Lower Left Quadrant

Lower Right Quadrant

Upper Right Quadrant

1. Internal thoracic a. and v.
2. Pericardiacophrenic a.
3. Diaphragm
4. Lung, right lower lobe (anterior mediastinal edge)
5. External abdominal oblique m.
6. Peritoneal cavity
7. Liver parenchyma, right lobe
8. Diaphragm
9. Portal v., br.
10. Ligamentum venosum (of Arantius) and hepatogastric ligament (lesser omentum)

11. Lymph node
12. Liver, caudate (spigelian) lobe
13. Portal v.
14. Epiploic foramen (Winslow)
15. Inferior vena cava
16. Splanchnic nerve and inferior phrenic a.
17. Lung, right lower lobe
18. Diaphragm
19. Thoracic duct
20. Latissimus dorsi m.
21. Suprarenal gland
22. Azygos v.
23. Lung, right lower lobe
24. Thoracic aorta
25. Vertebral body, T11
26. Transverse process, T11, and spinal cord theca
27. Spinal cord, lumbar

28. Vertebral spinous process, T11
29. Transversospinalis m.
30. Hemiazygos v.
31. Costovertebral articulation
32. Rib 11
33. Longissimus m.
34. Diaphragm
35. Iliocostalis m.
36. Short gastric aa. and w.
37. Lung, left lower lobe
38. Rib 10
39. Splenic v.
40. Spleen
41. Rib 9
42. Lung, left lower lobe
43. Diaphragm

44. Omentum
45. Peritoneal cavity
46. Rib 8
47. Stomach
48. Gastrocolic ligament
49. Lung, lower lobe
50. Diaphragm
51. Rib 7
52. Left lobe hepatic appendix (beaver tail) (var.)
53. Transverse colon
54. diaphragm
55. Rib 6
56. Rectus abdominis m.
57. Rib 7
58. Liver, left lobe
59. Xiphoid process

This section includes both abdomen and thorax. It passes through the upper edge of the vertebral body of the eleventh thoracic vertebra (25) and its spinous (28) and transverse processes. It cuts the eleventh (32), tenth (38), ninth (41), eighth (46), seventh (51, 57), and sixth (55) ribs and the xiphoid process (59).

The liver (7), stomach (47), and spleen (40) dominate the section. The transverse colon (53) is seen in the upper right quadrant of the section above the left lobe of the liver (52), which is anomalous in this subject. Beneath the left lobe, in the lower right quadrant, the stomach (47) and spleen (40) are seen. On the left side of the section, various parts of the liver may also be seen: the massive parenchyma of the right lobe (7), the caudate lobe (12), and the ligamentum venosum (10). In the left lower quadrant, the suprarenal gland with its cortex and medulla is clearly identifiable.

The diaphragm (3, 18, 34,43,54) and various portions of the lungs are seen, including the left lower lobe (37, 42, 49) and right lower lobe (4, 17, 23).

The splenic vein (39), short gastric arteries and veins (36), hemiazygos (30) and azygos (22) veins, inferior vena cave (15), a branch of the portal vein (9), inferior phrenic artery (16), the pericardiacophrenic artery (2), internal thoracic artery and vein (1), and the thoracic aorta (24) are identified.

The rectus abdominis (56), iliocostalis (35), transversospinalis (29), latissimus dorsi (20), and longissimus (33) muscles can be seen. Longissimus is the largest component and iliocostalis is the lateral component of the erector spinae muscle.

The gastrocolic (48) and hepatogastric (10) ligaments are seen in this section.

The spinal cord (27) and a splanchnic nerve (16) that carries preganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers are important elements of the nervous system seen in this section.

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