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Anatomy Atlases: Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 5. Lower Thorax (Lungs) and Abdomen

Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 5. Lower Thorax (Lungs) and Abdomen

Plate 5.15

Ronald A. Bergman, Ph.D., Adel K. Afifi, M.D., Jean J. Jew, M.D., and Paul C. Reimann, B.S.
Peer Review Status: Externally Peer Reviewed


Plate 5.15

Upper Left Quadrant

Lower Left Quadrant

Lower Right Quadrant

Upper Right Quadrant

1. Lymph node, lumbar
2. Middle colic aa. and w.
3. Transverse colon
4. Mesentery
5. Superior mesenteric a. and v., ileocolic brs.
6. Superficial epigastric a. and v.
7. Ileocolic a. and v.
8. Lymph node, mesocolic
9. Ileum
10. Peritoneal cavity and peritoneum
11. Superior mesenteric a. and v.
12. Gonadal a. and v.
13. Radix mesentery
14. Middle colic v.

15. Genitofemoral nerve
16. Ascending colon
17. Intercostal a. and v. and intercostal nerve, T12 (subcostal)
18. External abdominal oblique m. interdigitating with latissimus dorsi m.
19. Retroperitoneal fat
20. Lateral (femoral) cutaneous nerve (of thigh)
21. Right colic v.
22. Quadratus lumborum m.
23. Inferior vena cava, junction with left common iliac v.
24. Femoral nerve
25. Intertransversarius m.
26. Vertebral body, L4
27. Longissimus dorsi m.
28. Dorsal root ganglion and root, L4
29. Anterior longitudinal ligament
30. Theca and nerve roots (cauda equina)

31. Vertebral spinous process, L4
32. Vertebral arch, L4
33. Multifidus m.
34. Fourth lumbar nerve
35. Genitofemoral nerve and sympathetic trunk
36. Third lumbar nerve
37. Ascending lumbar v.
38. Psoas major m.
39. Anterior and posterior layers of thoracolumbar fascia
40. Quadratus lumborum m.
41. Subcostal nerve, T12
42. Thoracolumbar fascia and lumbar triangle
43. Skin and superficial (fatty) fascia
44. Descending colon

45. External abdominal oblique m.
46. Ureter
47. Transversus abdominis m.
48. Jejunum, cross sections
49. Superior mesenteric a. and gonadal a. and v.
50. Ilioinguinal and iliohypogastric nerves
51. Internal abdominal oblique m.
52. Superior mesenteric aa. and w., middle colic and jejunal brs.
53. Aortic plexus of nerves
54. Jejunal branches of superior mesenteric a. and v.
55. Abdominal aorta bifurcation into common iliac aa.
56. Transverse colon
57. Rectus abdominis m. and sheath
58. Ileal aa. and w.
59. Radix mesentery
60. Ligamentum teres of liver
61. Linea alba
62. Umbilicus

This section passes through the fourth lumbar vertebral body (26), the intervertebral foramina containing dorsal root ganglia and fourth lumbar nerves (28, 34), the arch (32) and spinous process of L4 (31), and, anteriorly, the umbilicus (62).

On the left side, the rectus abdominis muscle is seen within its sheath (57). Sections of the jejunum are still found on the left side adjacent to the descending colon (44). Superior mesenteric arterial and venous branches, including the middle colic and jejunal, are seen. The lumbar triangle is identified (42).

In the middle of the section, the transverse colon (56) and ileal arteries and veins (58) may be identified. The ileum (9) extends to the right side. At this level the bifurcation of the abdominal aorta into common iliac arteries (55) has almost been completed. The aortic plexus of nerves (53) is found. The union of the left common iliac vein with the inferior vena cave is taking place behind the aorta (23). Lumbar and mesocolic Iymph nodes (1, 8) are also found. The ureters (46, 13) are seen. Quadratus lumborum muscles (22, 40) are not seen below this section.

On the right side, coils of ileum (9) are cut. Ileocecal arteries and veins (7) are found. These branches of the superior mesenteric artery and vein (11) are found in relation to the ileum (9) and ascending (16) and transverse (3) colon. Ileocolic (5, 7), middle colic (2, 14) and right colic (21), gonadal (12), and superficial epigastric (6) blood vessels are also identified.

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