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Anatomy Atlases: Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 5. Lower Thorax (Lungs) and Abdomen

Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 5. Lower Thorax (Lungs) and Abdomen

Plate 5.14

Ronald A. Bergman, Ph.D., Adel K. Afifi, M.D., Jean J. Jew, M.D., and Paul C. Reimann, B.S.
Peer Review Status: Externally Peer Reviewed

Plate 5.14

Upper Left Quadrant

Lower Left Quadrant

Lower Right Quadrant

Upper Right Quadrant

1. Lumbar lymph node
2. Middle colic blood vessels
3. Transverse colon
4. Inferior epigastric a. and v.
5. Lumbar ascending vein joining inferior vena cava
6. Ileum
7. Ileal a. and vv.
8. Liver
9. Ureter

10. Ascending colon and sympathetic trunk
11. Intercostal nerve
12. Psoas major m. and genitofemoral nerve, genital br.
13. Lateral (femoral) cutaneous nerve (of thigh)
14. First lumbar nerve (iliohypogastric)
15. Slip of latissimus dorsi m. and abdominal oblique mm., origin from thoracolumbar fascia
16. Quadratus lumborum m., origin from transverse process and thoracolumbar fascia
17. Iliocostalis m.
18. Longissimus m.
19. Posterior lumbar fascia
20. Multifidus m.
21. Interspinalis m.
22. Spinous process, L4

23. Internal vertebral venous plexus
24. Nerve roots, cauda equina in theca
25. Inferior articular process, L3
26. Zygapophyseal joint
27. Superior articular process, L4
28. Erector spinae mm., aponeurosis of origin
29. Transverse process, L4
30. Third and fourth lumbar nerves
31. Psoas fascia
32. Sympathetic trunk
33. Thoracolumbar fascia and lumbar triangle
34. Descending colon and genitofemoral nerve
35. Aponeurosis m. transversus abdominis
36. Transversus abdominis m. arising from thoracolumbar fascia
37. Latissimus dorsi m. interdigitation
38. Intercostal nerve
39. Transversus abdominis m.
40. Internal abdominal oblique m.
41. External abdominal oblique m.
42. Dermis of skin
43. Ureter

44. Jejunal a. and v.
45. Jejunum
46. Transverse colon
47. Right colic a. and v.
48. Gonadal a. and v.
49. Lymph node
50. Aorta
51. Ileal a. and v.
52. Inferior epigastric a.
53. Rectus sheath, superficial layer
54. Rectus abdominis m.
55. Rectus sheath, deep layer
56. Linea alba

This section passes through the upper half of the fourth lumbar vertebra. The section crosses the transverse (29) and the superior articular process of L4 (27) and the inferior articular process of L3 (25).

On the left side, the transverse colon and its sacculations (46) can be seen. The colon can be identified by its size and the absence of mucosal folds and villi; the inner surface is smooth. The transverse colon joins the descending colon (34), and in the same region five cross sections of jejunum can be identified. Jejunal arteries and veins can be seen (44). The blood vessels found in this region arise from the superior mesenteric arteries and veins. The left ureter (43) and the left gonadal artery and vein (48) are identified.

In the middle of the section, a large sacculation of the transverse colon (3), middle colic arteries and veins (2), and lumbar Iymph nodes (1) are identified. The abdominal aorta (50) and inferior vena cave are seen before their bifurcation into iliac vessels, which are seen in the next section. An ascending lumbar vein (5) is seen.

On the right side, coils of ileum (6) are cut. Their mesentery contains ileal arteries and veins (7, 51), which are also branches of the superior mesenteric artery. The inferior edge of the right lobe of the liver (8) is seen. The liver makes its last appearance in this section. The ascending colon (10) is adjacent to the ileum (6), liver (8), and psoas major muscle (12). The right ureter (9) is seen.

Several important nerves are also seen: an intercostal nerve (38) between transversus abdominis (39) and internal oblique (40) muscles, the sympathetic trunk (10, 32), third and fourth lumbar nerves (30), the cauda equina nerve roots (24), iliohypogastric nerve (14), lateral (femoral) cutaneous nerve (of thigh) (13), and the genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve (12).

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