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Anatomy Atlases: Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 6: Pelvis, Perineum, Hip, and Upper Thigh

Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 6. Pelvis, Perineum, Hip, and Upper Thigh

Plate 6.6

Ronald A. Bergman, Ph.D., Adel K. Afifi, M.D., Jean J. Jew, M.D., and Paul C. Reimann, B.S.
Peer Review Status: Externally Peer Reviewed

Plate 6.6

Upper Left Quadrant

Lower Left Quadrant

Lower Right Quadrant

Upper Right Quadrant

1. Pyramidalis m. (first appearance)
2. Sigmoid colon
3. Peritoneal cavity
4. Inferior epigastric a. and v.
5. Sigmoid mesocolon
6. Linea semilunaris and lateral umbilical ligament
7. Cecum
8. Mesoappendix
9. Vermiform appendix
10. Deep circumflex iliac a. and v.
11. Inguinal ligament, origin from anterior superior iliac spine
12. Testicular neurovascular bundle
13. Tensor fascia lata m.
14. Iliotibial tract
15. Os ilium

16. External iliac v. and obturator nerve
17. Superficial fascia (panniculus adiposus)
18. Superior gluteal a. and v. and tendon of gluteus medius m.
19. Superior gluteal a. and v.
20. Internal iliac a. and v.
21. Posterior and ventral sacroiliac ligaments and lumbosacral trunk
22. Second sacral nerve
23. Piriformis m.
24. Third sacral nerve
25. Sigmoid colon
26. Fourth sacral nerve and anterior longitudinal ligament
27. Sacrum, third sacral vertebra

28. fourth sacral canal and sacral intervertebral cartilage
29. Thoracolumbar fascia
30. Third sacral nerve
31. Piriformis m. (first appearance)
32. Peritoneal cavity
33. Second sacral nerve
34. Sacroiliac joint
35. Internal iliac a. and v.
36. First sacral nerve
37. Ala of sacrum
38. Gluteus maximus m.
39. Lumbosacral trunk and left ureter
40. Iliacus m. insertion onto ventral sacroiliac ligament and ala of sacrum
41. Gluteus medius m.

42. Obturator nerve
43. Iliac fascia
44. Gluteus minimus m.
45. Femoral nerve
46. Anterior superior iliac spine
47. Aponeurosis joining iliacus m. and inner lateral abdominal wall mm.
48. External iliac a. and v.
49. Internal abdominal oblique m. (same origin as 50)
50. Transversus abdominis m. (an origin from aponeurosis of iliacus m. and iliac fascia)
51. Sigmoid colon
52. Testicular a. and v. and genital br. of genitofemoral nerve
53. External iliac Iymph nodes
54. Rectus (abdominis) sheath at arcuate and semilunar lines
55. Lateral umbilical ligament
56. Colon
57. Urinary bladder
58. Rectus abdominis m.
59. Median umbilical ligament

This section passes through the third sacral vertebra (27) and the anterior sacral foramina, in which the third sacral nerve (24, 30) is located. The fourth pair of sacral nerves (26) lie within the sacral canal (28) near the anterior sacral foramina. The sacroiliac joints (34) and the anterior superior spines (11, 46) of os ilium are seen in this cut.

On the right side, the bifurcation of the common iliac into the external and internal iliac veins (16, 20) is complete.

Piriformis (23, 31), tensor fasciae latae (13), and pyramidalis (1) muscles appear for the first time. Note an unusual (var.) origin of transversus abdominis (50) and internal oblique (49) muscles from the iliac fascia covering the iliacus (47) muscle.

The inguinal ligament (11) has its origin from the anterior superior spine (11).

The cecum (7), mesoappendix (8), and vermiform appendix (9) are seen in this section.

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