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Anatomy Atlases: Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 7. Lower Limb

Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 7. Lower Limb

Plate 7.19

Ronald A. Bergman, Ph.D., Adel K. Afifi, M.D., Jean J. Jew, M.D., and Paul C. Reimann, B.S.
Peer Review Status: Externally Peer Reviewed


Plate 7.19

Upper Left Quadrant

Lower Left Quadrant

Lower Right Quadrant

Upper Right Quadrant

1. Tibialis posterior m.
2. Intermuscular septum of leg

3. Posterior tibial vessels
4. Crural fascia (gastrocnemius aponeurosis)
5. Gastrocnemius m. (medial head)
6. Tendon m. plantaris
7. Tibial nerve

8. Soleus m.
9. Gastrocnemius m. (lateral head)
10. Peroneal vessels

11. Superficial peroneal nerve (musculocutaneous nerve of leg)
12. Peroneus brevis and longus mm.
13. Deep peroneal nerve
14. Anterior tibial a. and v.
15. Extensor digitorum longus and extensor hallucis longus mm.
16. Crural fascia
17. Interosseous membrane of leg
18. Tibialis anterior m.

This section is three below the preceding one (3 cm).

The anterior musculature of the leg is composed of four muscles: tibialis anterior (18), extensor digitorum longus and extensor hallucis longus (15), and peroneus tertius (arises below this section). The lateral musculature consists of two muscles: peroneus longus and brevis (12) muscles. The posterior musculature consists of six muscles in two groups, superficial and deep. The superficial group includes gastrocnemius (5, 9), soleus (8), and plantaris (tendon, 6 and Plate 7.17, 12) muscles. The deep group of posterior musculature includes popliteus (see Plate 7.18, 2), flexor digitorum longus (see Plate 7.20, 2), and the tibialis posterior (1) muscles.

The three compartments, anterior, lateral, and posterior, can be seen on this plate. The anterior compartment of the leg is defined by a line beginning at A, running along the interosseous membrane to B, and extending onward to C. The lateral or peroneal compartment of the leg is defined by a continuous line joining C, B, and D. The posterior compartment is posterior and medial to a line joining points A, B, and D.

The anterior musculature consists of the following. Tibialis anterior (18) arises from the lateral surface of the tibia and adjacent interosseous membrane (17) in the proximal half of the leg. Its tendon passes over the front of the lower end of the tibia to insert on the medial surface of the first cuneiform and on the first metatarsal of the foot. Extensor digitorum longus (15) arises from the lateral condyle of the tibia, from the anterior surface of the fibula and adjacent interosseous membrane (17), and from the fascia of the leg near the tibial origin and gives rise to a tendon that passes over the front of the distal end of the tibia and sends tendons to the terminal phalanges of the four lateral toes. Extensor hallucis longus (15) is a narrow muscle that arises from the middle two-fourths of the anterior surface of the fibula near the interosseous crest and from the distal half of the interosseous membrane (17). The muscle gives rise to a tendon that extends over the ankle and inserts onto the base of the distal phalanx of the great toe. Peroneus tertius arises from the distal third of the anterior surface of the fibula, neighboring interosseous membrane, and anterior intermuscular septum. Its tendon passes laterally through the same osteofibrous canal in the same synovial sheath as extensor digitorum longus and terminates on the fifth metatarsal.

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