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Anatomy Atlases: Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 7. Lower Limb

Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 7. Lower Limb

Plate 7.20

Ronald A. Bergman, Ph.D., Adel K. Afifi, M.D., Jean J. Jew, M.D., and Paul C. Reimann, B.S.
Peer Review Status: Externally Peer Reviewed

Plate 7.20

Upper Left Quadrant

Lower Left Quadrant

Lower Right Quadrant

Upper Right Quadrant

1. Posterior tibial vessels
2. Flexor digitorum longus m.
3. Great saphenous v. and saphenous nerve

4. Tibial nerve
5. Tendon m. plantaris
6. Crural fascia
7. Gastrocnemius m. (medial head)
8. Sural nerve

9. Gastrocnemius muscle (lateral head) and small saphenous v.
10. Soleus m.
11. Posterior crural septum (posterior intermuscular septum)
12. Peroneal v. and a.
13. Peroneus longus m.
14. Peroneus brevis m.

15. Superficial peroneal nerve
16. Anterior crural septum (anterior intermuscular septum)
17. Deep peroneal nerve and anterior tibial a. and v.
18. Extensor digitorum longus and extensor hallucis longus mm.
19. Tibialis anterior m.
20. Tibialis posterior m.

This section is three below the preceding one (3 cm).

The popliteal artery has divided into two branches that supply different parts of the leg. The anterior tibial artery (17) supplies the anterior compartment muscles, and the posterior tibial artery (1) supplies the posterior compartment muscles. The posterior tibial artery gives rise to the peroneal artery (12), which supplies structures on the posterolateral side of the leg.

The tendon of plantaris (5) is now a flattened band and occupies an interval between the deep fascia of gastrocnemius (7) and soleus (10) muscles.

The sural nerve (8), at this level, lies behind the gastrocnemius muscle at the fascial plane marking the division between the lateral (9) and medial (7) heads of the gastrocnemius muscle.

The deep peroneal nerve (17) arises from the common peroneal and supplies muscular branches to tibialis anterior (19), extensor digitorum longus (18), extensor hallucis longus (18), and peroneus tertius muscles. The superficial peroneal nerve (15) gives muscular branches to peroneus longus and peroneus brevis muscles. The remainder of the nerve is sensory to the skin of the lower aspect of the leg and the dorsum of the foot.

The anterior (16) and posterior (11) crural septa and the fibula define the lateral compartment and its muscular content.

The lateral compartment muscles consist of two muscles: peroneus brevis (14) and peroneus longus (13). Peroneus brevis arises from the middle third of the lateral surface of the fibula and from the septa (11, 16) that separate it from the anterior and posterior groups of muscles. The muscle inserts onto the dorsal aspect of the tuberosity of the fifth metatarsal. The anterior head (tendinous) of peroneus longus arises from the anterior capitular ligament (see Plate 7.17, 18), the neighboring part of the lateral condyle of the tibia, and the head of the fibula (see Plate 7.17, 16); the fleshy anterior head, from the proximal third of the anterior intermuscular septum (16) and the crural fascia; and the posterior fleshy head, from the proximal half of the lateral surface of the shaft of the fibula and the posterior intermuscular septum (11). The muscle inserts on the inferior surface of the first cuneiform and on the adjacent part of the inferolateral border and base of the first metatarsal. A fibrous slip is usually sent to the base of the fifth metatarsal. This fibrous slip arises from the tendon of peroneus longus within the groove of the cuboid bone.

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