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Anatomy Atlases: Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Topography of the Thorax and Abdomen

Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Appendix: Topography of the Thorax and Abdomen

Colon

Ronald A. Bergman, Ph.D., Adel K. Afifi, M.D., Jean J. Jew, M.D., and Paul C. Reimann, B.S.
Peer Review Status: Externally Peer Reviewed


Hepatic Flexure

Eycleshymer and Schoemaker report the hepatic flexure to lie, on average, at the level of the second lumbar disk with the range of variation being from the eleventh thoracic disk to the lower third of the third lumbar vertebra. Hermann and Reudel (cited but not referenced in Eycleshymer and Schoemaker) place the hepatic flexure at the level of the upper part of the third lumbar vertebra, and Cunningham places it at the level of the first lumbar spine.

Splenic Flexure

Eycleshymer and Schoemaker found the position of the Splenic flexure of the colon to vary from the ninth thoracic disk to a level between the upper and middle thirds of the second lumbar vertebra. The average position is at the level of the middle of the twelfth thoracic vertebra. Cunningham found it at the level of the twelfth thoracic spine.

With reference to the anterior thoracic wall, Eycleshymer and Schoemaker found the upper margin of the Splenic flexure nearly opposite the seventh rib, and Fromont indicated that it is usually at the level of the seventh or eighth rib.

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