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Anatomy Atlases: Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Topography of the Thorax and Abdomen

Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section

Appendix: Topography of the Thorax and Abdomen

Ronald A. Bergman, Ph.D., Adel K. Afifi, M.D., Jean J. Jew, M.D., and Paul C. Reimann, B.S.
Peer Review Status: Externally Peer Reviewed


The following topography is based on the review given by Potter in Eycleshymer and Schoemaker. Potter summarized the published data of 45 authors from the American, Austrian, English, French, German, Italian, and Russian literature. The present authors have added several other authors to Potter's original literature survey, which has been rewritten.

The following topographic lines have been used in the descriptions to follow. The anterior midline of the section is a vertical line passing through the middle of the sternum or linea alba. The posterior midline of the section is a vertical line through the centers of the spinous processes of the vertebrae. The midplane or medial plane is the vertical plane determined by these two lines. The sternal line is a vertical line along the lateral margin of the sternum. The mamillary line is a vertical line through the nipple. The nipple is so variable in position that this term is used synonymously with the midclavicular line. The parasternal line is a vertical line halfway between the sternal line and the mamillary line. The axillary line is a vertical line through the apex of the axilla. The scapular line is a vertical line through the inferior angle of the scapula.

Sternum

Pelvis

Stomach

Duodenum, Jejunum, and Ileum

Cecum

Appendix

Colon

Pancreas

Liver

Gallbladder

Spleen

Trachea

Lungs

Kidneys

Suprarenals

Heart and Heart Valves

Aorta

Superior Vena Cava

Inferior Vena Cava

Umbilicus

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