Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section
Ronald A. Bergman, Ph.D., Adel K. Afifi, M.D., Jean J. Jew,
M.D., and Paul C. Reimann, B.S.
Peer Review Status: Externally Peer Reviewed
The following topographic lines have been used in the descriptions to follow. The anterior midline of the section is a vertical line passing through the middle of the sternum or linea alba. The posterior midline of the section is a vertical line through the centers of the spinous processes of the vertebrae. The midplane or medial plane is the vertical plane determined by these two lines. The sternal line is a vertical line along the lateral margin of the sternum. The mamillary line is a vertical line through the nipple. The nipple is so variable in position that this term is used synonymously with the midclavicular line. The parasternal line is a vertical line halfway between the sternal line and the mamillary line. The axillary line is a vertical line through the apex of the axilla. The scapular line is a vertical line through the inferior angle of the scapula.
Duodenum, Jejunum, and Ileum
Heart and Heart Valves
Superior Vena Cava
Inferior Vena Cava
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