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Anatomy Atlases: Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 3. Middle Thorax (Heart and Lungs)

Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 3. Middle Thorax (Heart and Lungs)

Plate 3.8

Ronald A. Bergman, Ph.D., Adel K. Afifi, M.D., Jean J. Jew, M.D., and Paul C. Reimann, B.S.
Peer Review Status: Externally Peer Reviewed


Plate 3.8

Upper Left Quadrant

Lower Left Quadrant

Lower Right Quadrant

Upper Right Quadrant

1. Coronary sulcus
2. Rib 7 +
3. Rib 6
4. Heart, right atrium
5. Rib 5 and lung, right lower lobe, medial segment
6. Pectoralis major m.
7. Rib 5
8. Inferior vena cava entering right atrium
9. Lung, right middle lobe, lateral segment
10. Rib 6
11. Lung, right oblique fissure
12. Central tendon of diaphragm
13. Diaphragm; dome of right side
14. Pleural cavity

15. Lung, right lower lobe, anterior basal segment, and rib 7
16. Serratus anterior m.
17. Intercostal neurovascular bundle
18. Latissimus dorsi m.
19. Lung, right lower lobe, lateral basal segment
20. Lung, right middle lobe, medial segment
21. Lung, right lower lobe, medial basal segment
22. Iliocostalis m.
23. Lung, right lower lobe, posterior basal segment, and azygos v.
24. Dorsal root ganglion (intervertebral foramen) and vertebra T9
25. Trapezius m.

26. Spinal cord in theca
27. Multifidus m.
28. Thoracic aorta
29. Lung, left lower lobe, posterior basal segment, and longissimus m.
30. Lung, left lower lobe, posterior basal segment
31. Rib 9
32. Bronchiole and blood vessels
33. Pulmonary blood vessels
34. Lung, left lower lobe, lateral basal segment, and rib 8
35. Serratus anterior m.
36. Left lower lobe, anterior medial basal segment, and esophageal plexus of nerves

37. Lung, left lower lobe, anterior medial basal segment
38. Lung, left upper lobe, lower division (lingular), inferior segment, and left vagus nerve
39. Visceral pleura
40. Parietal pleura
41. Left coronary a.
42. Lung, left oblique fissure
43. Posterior left ventricular v.
44. Lung, left upper lobe, lower division (lingular), superior segment, and intercostal mm.
45. Parietal pericardium
46. Visceral pericardium
47. Coronary sinus
48. Left ventricle
49. Interventricular septum
50. Right ventricle
51. Internal thoracic aa.
52. Right coronary a.
53. Right coronary a.
54. Sternum, body (last appearance)

This section passes through the ninth thoracic vertebra at the intervertebral foramen (24) and its transverse processes. Anteriorly, the body of the sternum (54) is seen, and it makes its last appearance in this section. The section cuts ribs 9 (31), 8 (34), 7 (15), 6 (10), 5 (7),5 for a second time (5),6 a second time (3), and 7 a second time (2). The costocartilage of rib 7 articulates (synovial joint) with the sternum at the xiphisternal junction. The costal cartilages of ribs 8, 9, and 10 usually join the seventh costocartilage, hence it is labeled 7 + (2). When the eighth costicartilage reaches the sternum, it articulates with the xiphoid process.

The left lung contains the following bronchopulmonary segments: left upper lobe, lower division (lingular), costocartilage superior (44); left upper lobe, lower division (lingular), inferior (38); left lower lobe, anterior medial basal (37); left lower lobe, anterior medial basal (36); left lower lobe, lateral basal (34); and left lower lobe, posterior basal (30).

The middle mediastinum contains the heart; the following structures are identified: right coronary artery (52,53), right ventricle (50), interventricular septum (49), left ventricle (48), coronary sinus (47), visceral (46) and parietal (45) pericardium, posterior left ventricular vein (43), left coronary artery (41), inferior vena cave joining the right atrium (8), right atrium (4), and the coronary sulcus (1).

The right lung contains several bronchopulmonary segments; these are identified as follows: right lower lobe, posterior basal (23); right lower lobe, medial basal (21); right middle lobe, medial (20); right lower lobe, lateral basal (19); right lower lobe, anterior basal (15); right middle lobe, lateral (9); and right lower lobe, medial (5).

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