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Anatomy Atlases: Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 3. Middle Thorax (Heart and Lungs)

Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 3. Middle Thorax (Heart and Lungs)

Plate 3.9

Ronald A. Bergman, Ph.D., Adel K. Afifi, M.D., Jean J. Jew, M.D., and Paul C. Reimann, B.S.
Peer Review Status: Externally Peer Reviewed


Plate 3.9

Upper Left Quadrant

Lower Left Quadrant

Lower Right Quadrant

Upper Right Quadrant

1. Rib 7 and anterior mediastinal fat and cardiac fat on right atrium
2. Superior epigastric a. and v.
3. Rib 6
4. Esophageal hiatus of diaphragm
5. Rib 5 and lung, right middle lobe, medial segment
6. Pectoralis major m.
7. Right lung, middle lobe, lateral segment
8. Rib 6
9. Diaphragm
10. Inferior vena cava
11. Oblique fissure, right lung
12. Rib 7

13. Liver, right lobe
14. Lung, right lower lobe, anterior basal segment
15. Serratus anterior m.
16. Intercostal neurovascular bundle
17. Central tendon of diaphragm
18. Latissimus dorsi m. and right lung, lower lobe, lateral basal segment
19. Lung, right lower lobe, posterior basal segment
20. Lung, right lower lobe, medial basal segment
21. Longissimus m.
22. Right lung, middle lobe, medial segment and right vagus, esophageal plexus
23. Trapezius m. and azygos v.
24. Vertebra, T1 0
25. Denticulate ligament and spinal cord

26. Supraspinous ligament
27. Multifidus m.
28. Intervertebral articulation, T9/T10
29. Costovertebral articulation
30. Lymphatic and blood vessels, autonomic nerves, and thoracic aorta
31. Rib 10
32. Lung, left lower lobe, anterior medial basal segment
33. Lung, left lower lobe, posterior basal segment, and pleural cavity
34. Rib 9
35. Esophagus
36. Intercostal mm.
37. Lung, left lower lobe, lateral basal segment, and rib 8
38. Lung, left upper lobe, lower division, superior segment

39. Central tendon of diaphragm
40. Liver, left lobe (appendix fibrosa hepatic) (var.)
41. Lung, left lower lobe, lower division (lingular), inferior segment, and diaphragm
42. Lung, left lower lobe, anterior medial basal segment, and oblique fissure
43. Lung, left upper lobe, lower division (lingular), inferior segment
44. Liver, left lobe, and vagus, left (esophageal plexus)
45. Pericardial cavity
46. Heart, left ventricle
47. Heart, apex
48. Heart, right ventricle
49. Central tendon of diaphragm
50. Xiphoid process (first appearance)

This section passes through the tenth thoracic vertebra (24), its costovertebral articulation (29), and the intervertebral articulation, T9/10 (28). It cuts ribs 10 (31), 9 (34), 8 (37), 7 (12), 6 (8), and 5 (5) and the sixth (3) and seventh (1) costal cartilages. Note that the costocartilage does not articulate with the sternum (xiphoid process) at this level. The section passes through the right and left domes of the diaphragm, penetrating more deeply on the right side. The cut edges of the diaphragm (9, 41), and portions of the right (13) and left (40) lobes of the liver can be seen. The left lobe of the liver, in this subject, is a large persistent remnant of development that terminates near the spleen as a fibrous band (appendix fibrosa hepatic). This is called a "beaver tailed" liver.

The middle mediastinum contains the heart, including the right ventricle (48), apex (47), left ventricle (46), pericardial cavity (45), and middle mediastinal fat (1).

On the left side, the following left lung bronchopulmonary segments can be seen: left upper lobe, lower division (lingular), inferior (43); left lower lobe, anterior medial basal (42); left lower lobe, lower division (lingular), inferior (41); left upper lobe, lower division, superior segment (38); left lower lobe, lateral basal (37), left lower lobe, posterior basal (33); and left lower lobe, anterior medial basal (32).

The posterior mediastinum contains the esophagus (35) anteriorly and the thoracic aorta (30) posteriorly, flanked by the azygos vein (23) on the right and small lymphatic and blood vessels and elements of the autonomic nervous system (30) on the left.

On the right side, the bronchopulmonary segments of the right lung include the right middle lobe, medial (22); right lower lobe, medial basal (20); right lower lobe, posterior basal (19); right lower lobe, lateral basal (18); right lower lobe, anterior basal (14); right middle lobe, lateral (7); and right middle lobe, medial (5).

The thorax, middle portion, ends with this cut.

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