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Anatomy Atlases: Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 5. Lower Thorax (Lungs) and Abdomen

Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 5. Lower Thorax (Lungs) and Abdomen

Plate 5.11

Ronald A. Bergman, Ph.D., Adel K. Afifi, M.D., Jean J. Jew, M.D., and Paul C. Reimann, B.S.
Peer Review Status: Externally Peer Reviewed


Plate 5.11

Upper Left Quadrant

Lower Left Quadrant

Lower Right Quadrant

Upper Right Quadrant

1. Transverse mesocolon
2. Duodenum, horizontal part
3. Transverse colon
4. Middle colic a.
5. Middle colic v.
6. Gallbladder
7. Transversus abdominis m.
8. Internal oblique m.
9. External oblique m.
10. Duodenal-jejunal flexure
11. Rib 10
12. Inferior vena cava, termination left renal v.

13. Liver, right lobe
14. Rib 11
15. Ascending colon
16. Rib 12
17. Perirenal fat, right kidney lower pole
18. Pararenal fat
19. Lumbar or "quadratus" fascia
20. Thoracolumbar fascia, anterior layer
21. Ureter
22. Retroaortic left renal vein (var.)
23. Iliocostalis m.
24. Longissimus m.
25. Spinal nerve, L2, and dorsal root ganglion
26. Cauda equina
27. Spinalis m. and multifidus m.

28. Spinous process, L2
29. Interspinalis m.
30. Multifidus m.
31. Semispinalis.
32. Rotatores m.
33. Fat in intervertebral foramen, L2 L3
34. Dorsal root ganglion and disk, L2, and nucleus pulposus
35. Intertransversarium m. and anterior longitudinal ligament
36. Psoas major m.
37. Quadratus lumborum m.
38. Renal pelvis and disk, L2, and anulus fibrosus
39. Latissimus dorsi m.
40. Serratus posterior inferior m.
41. Left kidney
42. Renal pelvis
43. Descending colon
44. Mesenteric Iymph nodes
45. Inferior mesenteric v.
46. External oblique m.

47. Left gonadal a. and v.
48. Intercostal mm.
49. Lymph node and abdominal aorta
50. Transversus abdominis m.
51. Aortic plexus of nerves
52. Jejunum
53. External oblique m.
54. Rectus abdominis m.
55. Transverse colon
56. Superior mesenteric a.
57. Linea alba

This section passes through the second lumbar intervertebral disk (between vertebrae L2 and L3). It grazes the inferior edge of the second lumbar vertebra and passes through the intervertebral foramina (25, 33), which contain dorsal root ganglia and some perineural fat. The spinous process of L2 (28) is also present. The section cuts ribs 12 (16), 11 (14), and 10 (11). Ribs make their last appearance in this section.

On the left side, the transverse (55) and descending colon (43) cover loops of jejunum (52). On the posterior abdominal wall, the left renal pelvis (42) and kidney (41) are seen. Among the muscles associated with the posterior abdominal wall the following may be seen: psoas major (36), quadratus lumborum (37), latissimus dorsi (39), serratus posterior inferior (40), and external oblique (46).

The middle of the section contains the transverse colon (55), the duodenal jejunal flexure (10), the horizontal part of the duodenum (2), the inferior vena cave (12), and the abdominal aorta (49). The retroaortic left renal vein (22) can be seen joining the inferior vena cave (12). Around the abdominal aorta, the aortic plexus of nerves (51) can be identified. The small intertransversarius muscle (35) can be identified below the psoas major muscle (36).

On the right side, the gallbladder (6) and right lobe of the liver can be seen. The gallbladder makes its last appearance in this section. Note the ascending colon (15), the lower pole of the right kidney (17), the capsular perirenal fat (17), and the pararenal fat (18) which is adjacent to, but outside, the renal fascia that forms the renal capsule.

The transversospinalis muscles are differentiated and well seen in this cut. They include the rotatores (32), semispinalis (31), multifidus (27, 30), and interspinalis (29) muscles.

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