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Anatomy Atlases: Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 5. Lower Thorax (Lungs) and Abdomen

Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 5. Lower Thorax (Lungs) and Abdomen

Plate 5.12

Ronald A. Bergman, Ph.D., Adel K. Afifi, M.D., Jean J. Jew, M.D., and Paul C. Reimann, B.S.
Peer Review Status: Externally Peer Reviewed

Plate 5.12

Upper Left Quadrant

Lower Left Quadrant

Lower Right Quadrant

Upper Right Quadrant

1. Transverse colon and superficial fascia (panniculus adiposus)
2. Mesenteric root (radix) and right colic aa. and v.
3. Rectus (abdominis) sheath, posterior layer
4. Rectus abdominis m.
5. Rectus (abdominis) sheath, anterior layer
6. Greater omentum
7. Ileal plica circular folds of Kerckring
8. Transverse colon
9. Semilunar line
10. Ileum
11. Ileum, lumbar Iymph node, and aortic plexus of nerves
12. Liver, right lobe
13. Inferior vena cava

14. Thoracic duct and origin of a lumbar a.
15. Right ureter
16. Ascending colon
17. Latissimus dorsi m.
18. Intercostal neurovascular bundle
19. First lumbar nerve
20. Sympathetic trunk
21. Psoas major m.
22. Thoracolumbar fascia and iliocostalis n
23. Lumbar ascending vv. and genitofemoral nerve
24. Longissimus m.
25. Second lumbar nerve and vertebral body, L3
26. Multifidus m.
27. Theca and cauda equina

28. Interspinalis m. and internal vertebral venous plexus
29. Rotatores m. and inferior articular process, L2
30. Superior articular process, L3
31. Aponeurotic origin of erector spinae mm.
32. Anterior longitudinal ligament
33. Psoas major m. and second lumbar nerve
34. Transverse process, L3
35. Quadratus lumborum m.
36. Perirenal fat
37. Intercostal neurovascular bundle
38. Posterior renal fascia and renal a.
39. Sympathetic trunk
40. Kidney, left lower pole
41. Left ureter
42. Descending colon and gonadal a. and v.
43. Abdominal aorta

44. Jejunum
45. Left ureter, aortic nerve plexus, and lymphatic vessels
46. Ileum and lumbar Iymph nodes
47. Transverse colon and aortic nerve plexus
48. Ligamentum teres, hepatis
49. Ileum and superior mesenteric w.
50. Linea alba

This section passes through the third lumbar vertebra (25), its transverse process (34), spine, and superior articular process (30). The vertebral foramen houses the theca and spinal nerves (cauda equine) (27).

On the left side, the transverse colon (47) is seen as smooth walled tubes, followed by loops of jejunum (44), which shows folds and villi of mucosa. The descending colon (42) is structurally similar to the transverse colon. Note the lower pole of the left kidney (40) lying on the posterior renal fascia (38) surrounded by perirenal capsular fat (36). Note also the left ureter (45).

In the middle of the section, the transverse colon (1), ileum (49), superior mesenteric veins (49), Iymph nodes (11, 46), inferior vena cave (13), and the abdominal aorta (43) with its plexus of nerves (45) and nearby small lymphatic and blood vessels can be seen (45).

On the right side, more ileum (10, 11), transverse colon (8), ascending colon (16), and the inferior edge of the right lobe of the liver (12) are seen. The right ureter is also seen (15).

Between the psoas major muscles (21, 33) and L3 vertebral body (25), the second lumbar nerves (23, 33) can be identified.

Several intrinsic back muscles can be identified: rotatores (29), interspinalis (28), multifidus (26) and longissimus (24).

The radix mesentery (2) can be identified and it contains, at this level, right colic arteries and veins.

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