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Anatomy Atlases: Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 7. Lower Limb

Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section: Section 7. Lower Limb

Plate 7.27

Ronald A. Bergman, Ph.D., Adel K. Afifi, M.D., Jean J. Jew, M.D., and Paul C. Reimann, B.S.
Peer Review Status: Externally Peer Reviewed


Plate 7.27

Upper Left Quadrant

Lower Left Quadrant

Lower Right Quadrant

Upper Right Quadrant

1. Great saphenous v. and saphenous nerve
2. Tendon m. tibialis posterior
3. Tendon m. flexor digitorum longus
4. Posterior tibial a. and v.

5. Tibial nerve
6. Tendon m. plantaris
7. Fat pad
8. Tendon mm. gastrocnemius and soleus

9. Small saphenous v. and flexor hallucis longus m.
10. Peroneus brevis m.
11. Peroneus longus m.

12. Fibula
13. Peroneal a. and v. and tibiofibular articulation
14. Perforating branches of peroneal a.
15. Dorsal digital cutaneous nerves (brs. of superficial peroneal)
16. Extensor digitorum longus m. and tendon
17. Extensor hallucis longus m.
18. Anterior tibial a. and v. and deep peroneal nerve
19. Tendon m. tibialis anterior

This section is three below the preceding one (3 cm). This is the final section in the leg series, and the ankle and foot series will start with the next cut.

Note the beginnings of the lower tibiofibular articulation (13). The interosseous membrane is not seen in this section. The muscle bulk continues to decrease in size with concomitant increases in size of the muscular tendinous component.

The superficial peroneal nerve (15) arises from the common peroneal and descends in the intermuscular septum between the long and short peroneal muscles and extensor digitorum longus. It provides muscular branches to peroneus longus and peroneus brevis muscles. The remainder of the nerve is sensory to the skin of the lower part of the anterior aspect of the leg and dorsum of the foot. There are two primary branches, the medial dorsal cutaneous and the intermediate dorsal cutaneous nerves (15). The terminal fibers are called the dorsal digital nerve of the foot.

The small saphenous vein (9) begins at the lateral end of the dorsal venous arch of the foot. After receiving branches from the sole, which turn over the lateral border of the foot, it passes posterior to the lateral malleolus, receiving malleolar and calcaneal veins, and turns proximally, passing at first along the posterior side of the calf, in company with the sural nerve, first lateral to and then superficial to the nerve. At a variable point in the leg it pierces the deep fascia and ascends to the popliteal fossa. It may be found in the interval between the superficial and deep fascia or in a compartment of the deep fascia. The small saphenous vein most frequently drains into the popliteal vein in the popliteal fossa; it may also communicate by a branch to the great saphenous vein. It may terminate after passing through the short head of the biceps muscle in the deep femoral or one of the perforating veins of the thigh. It may not even reach the thigh but may terminate in the great saphenous below the knee, or in the deep veins of the leg (sural). The saphenous vein is usually small (about 3 mm in diameter) and contains six to nine valves along its length. Both saphenous veins (great and small) are clinically important because of their propensity for becoming varicosed. The great saphenous vein is used in angioplasty.

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